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JFK 50TH Anniversary

Discuss Conspiracies and Cover Ups - e.g. 9/11 Truth, JFK Assassination, New World Order, Roswell, Moon Hoax, Secret Societies, etc. whatever conspiracy floats your boat.

Re: JFK 50TH Anniversary

Postby SydneyPSIder » 08 May 2014, 10:58

ProfWag wrote:
SydneyPSIder wrote:. Another was a young serviceman filming who felt a bullet whiz by his ear, and was accosted by a man with a gun who took his film.


Gordon Arnold? He he, have you bothered to look at the whole story (or should I say "stories" of Gordon Arnold? You haven't? I didn't think so.


You should enlighten us, Prof, given that you're casting aspersions. Although it's a typical cheap pseudoscep shot to use one dubious witness to attempt to discredit dozens of witnesses -- what logical fallacy name is that? The 'lowest common denominator fallacy'?

The thing is, we only need one authentic eyewitness account, if such a thing can be produced, regardless of 500 fake ones appearing. Certainly a lot of witnesses reported seeing smoke from the grassy knoll, reported hearing gunshots from there, etc. Dozens of people swarmed to the grassy knoll at the time as the source of the shots -- which I have to say took a lot of guts and decency from common folk, much more than the cowardly elite who had set up the assassination -- were all their senses deceiving them at once? Visual confirmatory evidence has already been produced above of the straight line from the trees on the grassy knoll to where a piece of debris was found on the other side of the road -- something else that was suppressed and not investigated by the Warren Commission.

Consider also the very dubious (and convenient for a cover-up) terms of reference and manner of conduct of the Warren Commission involving cherry-picking and then simply ignoring testimony and writing up any conclusions they wanted:

Examination of photographs and home movies suggests that there were perhaps as many as 600 people in Dealey Plaza at the time of the assassination. Official interviews or statements exist for around 200 of these witnesses. Because the Warren Commission did no investigation of its own, almost all of the witnesses who testified before the Commission were chosen from those who had already made official statements. The other 400 or so, including many of the spectators nearest to the president, were never interviewed officially at all. Few of these missing witnesses were identified, even when the authorities had been informed of their existence (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.15, pp.525f).

In many cases, the witnesses appear not to have been asked about the origin of the shots. Of those who were asked, probably a small majority claimed that the shots came from the general direction of the Texas School Book Depository. A handful of people claimed to have heard shots from both directions. Many had no opinion.

•Buell Wesley Frazier, Billy Lovelady and Otis Williams, three men who were standing on the front steps of the TSBD, directly underneath the supposed sniper’s nest, claimed that all the shots came from the general direction of the knoll.
•Arnold Rowland thought the shots had come from the knoll, despite already having seen a man in the southwest window of the sixth floor of the TSBD, holding a gun (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.2, pp.171–3).
•Kenneth O’Donnell and David Powers nominated the TSBD in their testimony, but believed in private that shots had come from the knoll.

Witnesses to Shots from the Grassy Knoll

Here is a list, in alphabetical order by surname, and no doubt incomplete, of those witnesses to President Kennedy’s assassination who claimed that one or more shots came from the general direction of the grassy knoll:

1.Victoria Adams
2.Danny Garcia Arce
3.Virgie Baker (née Rackley)
4.Jane Berry
5.Charles Brehm
6.Ochus Campbell
7.Faye Chism
8.John Chism
9.Harold Elkins
10.Ronald Fischer
11.Buell Wesley Frazier
12.Dorothy Garner
13.Jean Hill
14.S. M. Holland
15.Ed Johnson
16.Dolores Kounas
17.Paul Landis
18.Billy Lovelady
19.Austin Miller
20.A.J. Millican
21.Luke Mooney
22.Thomas Murphy
23.Jean Newman
24.William Newman
25.Kenneth O’Donnell and David Powers
26.Roberta Parker
27.Frank Reilly
28.Arnold Rowland
29.Edgar Smith
30.Joe Marshall Smith
31.Forrest Sorrels
32.James Tague
33.Roy Truly
34.Harry Weatherford
35.Seymour Weitzman
36.Otis Williams
37.Mary Woodward
38.Abraham Zapruder
•Several other witnesses gave statements that may be interpreted as evidence of shots from the grassy knoll.
•Four witnesses of varying degrees of credibility, Gordon Arnold, Cheryl McKinnon, Lee Bowers, and Ed Hoffman, also claimed to have experienced shots or other sinister activity on the grassy knoll.

http://22november1963.org.uk/jfk-assass ... -witnesses


Then we know nothing of possible intimidation of witnesses to change their stories, etc, if so much was at stake. Witnesses such as Kenneth O’Donnell and David Powers may have been intimidated or simply changed their official testimony out of a perception that something wasn't right with the investigation and they should keep their heads down.

here's part 3 also:

Last edited by SydneyPSIder on 09 May 2014, 18:17, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: JFK 50TH Anniversary

Postby SydneyPSIder » 08 May 2014, 11:19

Part 4 of the series looks at LHO as a patsy, and also at the low likelihood of performing all the actions he was alleged to have performed in 90 seconds, including shooting someone fatally, discarding a rifle, running down several floors at full pace, buying a Coke, and being discovered not the least bit flustered or out of breath by a policeman at that point. Yet somehow Dallas Police had been advised to look for someone matching his appearance exactly in the area from some mysterious source? How would they know it was him? Why would he even be a suspect at all at that point in time? The fact that NO shots were reported by eyewitnesses to have come from the TSPD building and the lack of LHO's fingerprints on the rifle until some days later where a single palmprint was 'discovered' (how do you aim and fire a gun with just your palm?) and the strange appearance of a supposedly incriminating whole undamaged bullet in the hospital on JFK's stretcher (???) confirms the likelihood that he was set up as a patsy, and as someone who prided himself on being a small-time intelligence operative who had previously been sent to Russia as a mole and so on who had been gulled into doing certain things without full explanation.

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Re: JFK 50TH Anniversary

Postby SydneyPSIder » 08 May 2014, 15:14

Up to 8 shots reported by 1 eyewitness:

A.J. Millican

I was standing on the North side of Elm Street, about half way between Houston and the Underpass. … I heard three shots come from up toward Houston and Elm right by the Book Depository Building, and then immediately I heard two more shots come from the Arcade between the Book Store and the Underpass, and then three more shots came from the same direction only sounded further back.

(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.19, p.486, no date, but filed with a group of similar statements given on 22 November 1963)

http://22november1963.org.uk/jfk-assass ... -witnesses


I recommend reading all the gathered detailed witness statements from the link above. ProfWag conveniently overlooks the preponderance of evidence while going out of his way to denigrate one suspect 'witness' and a few nuts who came forward to claim that therefore all the reputable witnesses are somehow tarnished or unreliable. Interesting piece of pseudoscep logic.

This is an appropriate point to link to Part 5: The Witnesses

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Re: JFK 50TH Anniversary

Postby SydneyPSIder » 08 May 2014, 16:29

Kenneth O’Donnell and David Powers

Two members of the White House staff, Kenneth O’Donnell and David Powers, were travelling in the Secret Service car immediately behind President Kennedy’s car. O’Donnell testified that the shots came from the rear (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.7, p.448). Powers agreed, but added that “I also had a fleeting impression that the noise appeared to come from the front in the area of the triple overpass” (ibid., p.473).

The politician, Tip O’Neill, claimed in his memoirs that both men had in fact heard shots from the grassy knoll:

I was never one of those people who had doubts or suspicions about the Warren Commission’s report on the president’s death. But five years after Jack died, I was having dinner with Kenny O’Donnell and a few other people at Jimmy’s Harborside Restaurant in Boston, and we got to talking about the assassination.

I was surprised to hear O’Donnell say that he was sure he had heard two shots that came from behind the fence.

“That’s not what you told the Warren Commission,” I said.

“You’re right, ” he replied. “I told the FBI what I had heard, but they said it couldn’t have happened that way and that I must have been imagining things. So I testified the way they wanted me to. I just didn’t want to stir up any more pain and trouble for the family.”

“I can’t believe it,” I said. ”I wouldn’t have done that in a million years. I would have told them the truth.”

“Tip, you have to understand. The family — everybody wanted this thing behind them.”

Dave Powers was with us at dinner that night, and his recollection of the shots was the same as O’Donnell’s. Kenny O’Donnell is no longer alive, but during the writing of this book I checked with Dave Powers. As they say in the news business, he stands by his story.

(Thomas P. O’Neill, Jr., Man of the House: The Life and Political Memoirs of Speaker Tip O’Neill, Random House, 1987, p.178)



So it looks like it's just ProfWag out on his own again...
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Re: JFK 50TH Anniversary

Postby SydneyPSIder » 08 May 2014, 16:38

Just for a change of pace:

The Man Who Killed Kennedy: The Case Against LBJ



The ridiculousness of ProfWag's attempted arguments are laid bare in this talk.
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Re: JFK 50TH Anniversary

Postby ProfWag » 09 May 2014, 07:12

Syd, wouldn't it just be easier for you to make one post to beg people to watch The Men Who Killed Kennedy rather than several rambling posts? Those of us who are actually interested in finding out the truth already have seen it. Yawn. And you're saying my posts are ridiculous when each one of your posts points to a different person (i.e. LBJ.)? You crack me up Syd. Again, nothing new or original. Everything you've just posted is pure speculation and not tied to evidence. Let us know when you have something solid. We'll be waiting...and waiting...and waiting...
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Re: JFK 50TH Anniversary

Postby SydneyPSIder » 09 May 2014, 14:54

thanks for another useless deliberately distracting and diverting post, profwag. I'm actually going to post in the rest of the series as it's a convenient way to view the segments without going to youtube. how do you like them apples?

it gets tiring rebutting your fallacies, non sequiturs and red herrings. each post does NOT point to a different person, LBJ has been central throughout as a key organising guilty figure, but they certainly point to a collusion between a number of vested interests -- elements in the CIA, FBI, Texan oil circles, the military-industrialists and links to the Mafia using people like Jack Ruby and possibly recruiting various assassins -- as pointed out in the documentary parts above. you don't seem to have taken the time to gain the holistic picture being presented. further, it's not pure speculation, it's obviously deeply grounded in numerous firsthand eyewitness statements, as well as further private investigations, which you find uncomfortable because they go against your own personal agendas and against the convenient official findings of the Warren Commission. You seem to want to suppress the continued publicisation of these enquiries and views. Over and over again leads were not investigated by the FBI or Dallas Police, suggesting a political cover-up of the first order by powerful vested interests -- interests whom you may well personally be representing here. I mean, no-one could be as wilfully dumb as to seriously present the views you are putting forward without being paid for it.
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Re: JFK 50TH Anniversary

Postby SydneyPSIder » 09 May 2014, 17:52

profwag's timely post leads us conveniently to part 6: testimony from military ppl who spoke to CIA ppl who may have planned the exercise, along with researchers who concluded from the zapruder pictorial evidence that the fatal shot must have come from the stormwater drain at road level, with an easily accessed manhole cover and egress to the stormwater system some way off.

one operator, a Lt Col Dan Marvin, working in special forces notes that there was a govt policy to recruit mafia hitmen for jobs inside America, special forces soldiers for outside. he also points out that CIA trainers appeared to have been directly involved in planning the exercise. he claims he was asked to kill Navy Commander Bill Pitzer who had JFK's autopsy images in his possession from the Bethesda hospital autopsy (conducted against all state and Federal regulations after a homicide had been committed, and which did not allow for the calculation of bullet trajectories and directions, for instance), where he declined, only to learn that the Commander had 'suicided' 2 years later by using a gun in his right hand (as a left hander) and who mysteriously had a mangled left hand as though suffering from torture. apparently this was a common use for such special forces recruits in that decade. here we see the military interactions between CIA and regular army.

note commentary from the special forces operative particularly from 17:46:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YAdz78lgu8Y#t=1066

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Re: JFK 50TH Anniversary

Postby SydneyPSIder » 10 May 2014, 07:17

Parts 7-9 -- also very disturbing. These last 3 episodes were made later, in 2003, and were withdrawn out of deference to protecting some of the govt criminals involved.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Men_Who_Killed_Kennedy





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Re: JFK 50TH Anniversary

Postby ProfWag » 10 May 2014, 20:35

Here is all that needs to be said about the credibility of "The Men Who Killed Kennedy:"

"In an hourlong program to be broadcast tonight, the History Channel will engage in an unusual mea culpa, presenting an evaluation of one of its own programs that concludes that it and the channel were irresponsible.

Tonight's program (at 8; 7, Central time) was produced in response to vociferous complaints about a documentary, ''The Guilty Men,'' that accused former President Lyndon B. Johnson of being complicit in the assassination of his predecessor, John F. Kennedy. It was broadcast in November, during the week of the 40th anniversary of President Kennedy's death, and a squall of protest arose shortly afterward, led by the broadcaster Bill Moyers; Jack Valenti, president of the Motion Picture Association of America; and others who worked for Johnson during his presidency. They were supported by Lady Bird Johnson, the president's widow.

The History Channel subsequently asked three prominent historians -- Robert Dallek, Stanley I. Kutler and Thomas Sugrue -- to make an independent evaluation of the documentary. Their findings are the subject of tonight's program, called ''The Guilty Men: A Historical Review.'' In a statement the History Channel acknowledged that the historians determined that the accusation against Johnson was insupportable and that the documentary should not have been broadcast.

''After reflecting on the historians' comments and conducting its own internal review,'' the statement said in part, ''the History Channel recognizes that 'The Guilty Men' failed to offer viewers context and perspective, and fell short of the high standards that the network sets for itself. The History Channel apologizes to its viewers and to Mrs. Johnson and her family for airing the show.''
Barr McClellan, the author of a book that makes similar accusations against President Johnson and who was a central interview subject in ''The Guilty Men,'' said he was disappointed that none of the three historians got in touch with him, or the film's producer, Nigel Turner, to ask about their sources or their evidence. He said that he stands by his research. Mr. Turner could not be reached."
http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/07/arts/ ... gizes.html
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Re: JFK 50TH Anniversary

Postby SydneyPSIder » 11 May 2014, 12:12

ProfWag wrote:Here is all that needs to be said about the credibility of "The Men Who Killed Kennedy:"

"In an hourlong program to be broadcast tonight, the History Channel will engage in an unusual mea culpa, presenting an evaluation of one of its own programs that concludes that it and the channel were irresponsible.

Tonight's program (at 8; 7, Central time) was produced in response to vociferous complaints about a documentary, ''The Guilty Men,'' that accused former President Lyndon B. Johnson of being complicit in the assassination of his predecessor, John F. Kennedy. It was broadcast in November, during the week of the 40th anniversary of President Kennedy's death, and a squall of protest arose shortly afterward, led by the broadcaster Bill Moyers; Jack Valenti, president of the Motion Picture Association of America; and others who worked for Johnson during his presidency. They were supported by Lady Bird Johnson, the president's widow.

The History Channel subsequently asked three prominent historians -- Robert Dallek, Stanley I. Kutler and Thomas Sugrue -- to make an independent evaluation of the documentary. Their findings are the subject of tonight's program, called ''The Guilty Men: A Historical Review.'' In a statement the History Channel acknowledged that the historians determined that the accusation against Johnson was insupportable and that the documentary should not have been broadcast.

''After reflecting on the historians' comments and conducting its own internal review,'' the statement said in part, ''the History Channel recognizes that 'The Guilty Men' failed to offer viewers context and perspective, and fell short of the high standards that the network sets for itself. The History Channel apologizes to its viewers and to Mrs. Johnson and her family for airing the show.''
Barr McClellan, the author of a book that makes similar accusations against President Johnson and who was a central interview subject in ''The Guilty Men,'' said he was disappointed that none of the three historians got in touch with him, or the film's producer, Nigel Turner, to ask about their sources or their evidence. He said that he stands by his research. Mr. Turner could not be reached."
http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/07/arts/ ... gizes.html


All that needs to be said? Surely that attempt at spin opens up a whole Pandora's box of new questions about how 'establishment' figures attempt to discredit the research that has been done, and lean on the history channel to run an apology and so on.

Barr McClellan stands by his research. I think the closer you get to the truth and the characters behind it, the more they push back.

What did these 3 'eminent historians' have to say about the LBJ connections with a bunch of criminals like Billy Sol Estes and Malcolm 'Mac' Wallace? Both verifiable facts. LBJ was facing criminal charges going into the 1964 election from which he was gong to be dropped as a running mate. The only reason he was on the ticket at all was that they felt he was needed to bolster the southern vote, not that his style, personality or approach to politics were particularly palatable. Further verifiable facts included the match of fingerprints between Mac Wallace's rap sheet and a box in the sniper's nest in the TSBD. A huge number of eyewitness statements drawn from the Warren Commission itself suggest shots came from elsewhere than the TSBD. Other 'circumstantial' witnesses testify to a conspiracy beforehand between key players, and quite a bit of covering up afterwards, including further extra-judicial killings. Put all these and a multitude of other interpersonal connections, associations, pieces of information, happenings, and motives together and you get a picture of a coup d'état using LHO as a patsy, something he himself only truly realised somewhat late in the piece. Every single part of the assassination and the official story is suspicious and does not hold water on deeper inspection, an inspection profwag for some reason is unwilling to make.
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Re: JFK 50TH Anniversary

Postby ProfWag » 11 May 2014, 20:18

And yet 50 years later, we still don't have any other solid suspect and nothing but circumstantial evidence for anyone other than the solid evidence of LHO for which we do have extremely solid evidence. Other evidence may suggest that others were involved in a potential plot or planning, but nothing at all that would suggest anyone other than LHO acting alone on Nov 22, 1963. Your mention of people hearing shots from the knoll, etc. are dwarfed by the number of people who claim all shots came from the 6th floor.
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Re: JFK 50TH Anniversary

Postby SydneyPSIder » 12 May 2014, 19:27

ProfWag wrote:And yet 50 years later, we still don't have any other solid suspect and nothing but circumstantial evidence for anyone other than the solid evidence of LHO for which we do have extremely solid evidence. Other evidence may suggest that others were involved in a potential plot or planning, but nothing at all that would suggest anyone other than LHO acting alone on Nov 22, 1963. Your mention of people hearing shots from the knoll, etc. are dwarfed by the number of people who claim all shots came from the 6th floor.

Nonsense. 50 years of cover-up.

Dozens of witnesses cited the grassy knoll as the source of the shot, we have video evidence of people swarming the knoll looking for a shooter, eyewitnesses report seeing a puff of smoke from the knoll, eyewitnesses repeat that people were running towards the knoll, the Warren Commission cherry-picked witnesses, other witnesses say the FBI offered to pay them to say nothing, and/or they were not interested in getting testimony from those eyewitnesses if it differed from the 'official' story. As noted, many eyewitnesses said one thing to the Commission and said something else unofficially saying they didn't want to rock the boat. It's also easy to threaten, bribe or intimidate legitimate witnesses or plant false witnesses to give false accounts, once the fix is on. Your logic holds no water as usual. Your '50 years later' attempt at argument is just another pseudoscep non-logical ploy from the playbook, 'appeal to age'. Also, tell us which accounts 'dwarf' the accounts contrary to the official story.

Here at scepcop we are in the business of debunking pseudosceptics and their false logic, and this thread is a prime example of that mission.
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Re: JFK 50TH Anniversary

Postby SydneyPSIder » 13 May 2014, 12:37

Grassy Knoll Witnesses

Evidence of Shots from the Front
About 40 witnesses to the assassination of President Kennedy claimed either to have heard gunshots from the infamous grassy knoll in the northwest corner of Dealey Plaza, or to have seen smoke or smelled gunpowder in that area.

Interviewing the Dealey Plaza Witnesses
Several of these witnesses were interviewed by newspaper, radio and television reporters immediately after the assassination. The interviews were influential in generating doubt about the lone–gunman theory. Many other interviews have been carried out in the years since the assassination, almost all of them by private researchers.

Examination of photographs and home movies suggests that there were perhaps as many as 600 people in Dealey Plaza at the time of the assassination. Official interviews or statements exist for around 200 of these witnesses. Because the Warren Commission did no investigation of its own, almost all of the witnesses who testified before the Commission were chosen from those who had already made official statements. The other 400 or so, including many of the spectators nearest to the president, were never interviewed officially at all. Few of these missing witnesses were identified, even when the authorities had been informed of their existence (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.15, pp.525f).

In many cases, the witnesses appear not to have been asked about the origin of the shots. Of those who were asked, probably a small majority claimed that the shots came from the general direction of the Texas School Book Depository. A handful of people claimed to have heard shots from both directions. Many had no opinion.

Status of the Dealey Plaza Witness Evidence
Most of the evidence quoted below falls into four categories:

•contemporaneous reports by journalists who were in Dealey Plaza;
•statements to the police or sheriff’s deputies within hours of the assassination;
•statements to the FBI, mostly within a few days of the assassination;
•and interviews by the Warren Commission’s staff attorneys several months after the assassination.
None of the official evidence became publicly available until the Warren Commission’s Hearings and Exhibits were issued in November 1964. Some of it was not published at all, but was placed in the National Archives, and was only discovered at a later date. Access to the evidence was not helped by the fact that the witnesses’ statements and testimony were scattered throughout many of the 26 volumes of the Hearings and Exhibits.

There are some curiosities within the evidence:

•Emmett Hudson, the only man identified out of the three standing on the steps leading up to the fence on the grassy knoll, claimed that all the shots came from the general direction of the TSBD (see Warren Commission Hearings, vol.7, p.560 and p.564; his earliest statements, however, are ambiguous).
•Buell Wesley Frazier, Billy Lovelady and Otis Williams, three men who were standing on the front steps of the TSBD, directly underneath the supposed sniper’s nest, claimed that all the shots came from the general direction of the knoll.
•Charles Brehm, who had an excellent view of the assassination, either changed his mind or was misquoted. He was reported in the Dallas Times Herald on the evening of 22 November as thinking that “the shots came from in front of or beside the President.” The FBI two days later stated that “it seemed quite apparent to him that the shots came from one or two buildings back at the corner of Elm and Houston Streets” (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.837).
•Arnold Rowland thought the shots had come from the knoll, despite already having seen a man in the southwest window of the sixth floor of the TSBD, holding a gun (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.2, pp.171–3).
•Kenneth O’Donnell and David Powers nominated the TSBD in their testimony, but believed in private that shots had come from the knoll.

Witnesses to Shots from the Grassy Knoll
Here is a list, in alphabetical order by surname, and no doubt incomplete, of those witnesses to President Kennedy’s assassination who claimed that one or more shots came from the general direction of the grassy knoll:

1.Victoria Adams
2.Danny Garcia Arce
3.Virgie Baker (née Rackley)
4.Jane Berry
5.Charles Brehm
6.Ochus Campbell
7.Faye Chism
8.John Chism
9.Harold Elkins
10.Ronald Fischer
11.Buell Wesley Frazier
12.Dorothy Garner
13.Jean Hill
14.S. M. Holland
15.Ed Johnson
16.Dolores Kounas
17.Paul Landis
18.Billy Lovelady
19.Austin Miller
20.A.J. Millican
21.Luke Mooney
22.Thomas Murphy
23.Jean Newman
24.William Newman
25.Kenneth O’Donnell and David Powers
26.Roberta Parker
27.Frank Reilly
28.Arnold Rowland
29.Edgar Smith
30.Joe Marshall Smith
31.Forrest Sorrels
32.James Tague
33.Roy Truly
34.Harry Weatherford
35.Seymour Weitzman
36.Otis Williams
37.Mary Woodward
38.Abraham Zapruder

•Several other witnesses gave statements that may be interpreted as evidence of shots from the grassy knoll.
•Four witnesses of varying degrees of credibility, Gordon Arnold, Cheryl McKinnon, Lee Bowers, and Ed Hoffman, also claimed to have experienced shots or other sinister activity on the grassy knoll.

The Layout of Dealey Plaza
For online images and maps of Dealey Plaza, see the Mary Ferrell Foundation website. A plan of Dealey Plaza with the locations of known witnesses can be found in Josiah Thompson, Six Seconds in Dallas: A Micro–Study of the Kennedy Assassination, Bernard Geis Associates, 1967, pp.252f. For an illustrated identification of witnesses in photographs of the assassination, see Les Témoins de Dealey Plaza, which contains links to the witnesses’ testimony; although it is in French, it can be easily understood by those who don’t read the language.

Victoria Adams
Victoria Adams was watching the motorcade from a window on the fourth floor of the Texas School Book Depository.

She believed the sound came from toward the right of the building, rather than from the left and above as it must have been according to subsequent information disseminated by the news services.
(Warren Commission Document 5, p.39, 24 November 1963)
It seemed as if it came from the right below rather than from the left above.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.6, p.388, 7 April 1964)
Danny Garcia Arce
Danny Arce, a colleague of Lee Oswald, was on the north side of Elm Street, near the TSBD.

To the best of my knowledge there were three shots and they came from the direction of the railroad tracks near the parking lot at the west end of the Depository Building.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.634, 18 March 1964)
Mr Ball :Where did you make out the direction of the sound?Mr Arce :Yeah, I thought they came from the railroad tracks to the west of the Texas School Book Depository.…Mr Ball :Now, it sounded to you that the shots came from what direction?Mr Arce :From the tracks on the west deal.…Mr Ball : Did you look back at the building?Mr Arce :No, I didn’t think they came from there. I just looked directly to the railroad tracks and all the people started running up there and I just ran along with them.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.6, pp.365f, 7 April 1964)
Virginia Baker (née Rackley)
Virginia Rackley, who got married shortly after the assassination, was standing on the north side of Elm Street close to the main entrance to the TSBD.

It sounded as though these sounds were coming from the direction of the Triple Underpass, and looking in that direction after the first shot she saw something bounce from the roadway in front of the Presidential automobile and now presumes it was a bullet bouncing off the pavement. …
Rackley stated that she did not look up at the Texas School Book Depository building since she did not think that the sounds were coming from that building.
(Warren Commission Document 5, pp.66f, 24 November 1963)
[Linguistic note: although almost every British reader will know that a ‘pavement’ in the UK is a ‘sidewalk’ in the US, not all will be aware that in US English, the word ‘pavement’ refers to the hard surface of a road.]

Mr Liebeler : Did you have any idea where they [the shots] were coming from?Mrs Baker :Well, the way it sounded — it sounded like it was coming from — there was a railroad track that runs behind the building — there directly behind the building and around, so I guess it would be by the underpass, the triple underpass, and there is a railroad track that runs back out there.…Mr Liebeler :And you say there are some railroad tracks back in there; is that right?Mrs Baker :Yes.Mr Liebeler :Immediately behind Dealey Plaza away from Elm Street?Mrs Baker :Yes.Mr Liebeler :And is that where you thought the shots came from?Mrs Baker :Yes.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.7, p.510, 22 March 1964)
Jane Berry
Jane Berry was standing on the north side of Elm Street a few yards west of the TSBD.

Everyone was very excited and no one seemed to know where the shot had come from. It sounded as if it had been fired from a position west of where she was standing.
(Warren Commission Document 5, p.42, 24 November 1964)
Charles Brehm
Charles Brehm was standing with his wife and young son on the south side of Elm Street, just a few yards from President Kennedy at the moment of the fatal shot.

The witness Brehm was shaking uncontrollably as he further described the shooting. “The first shot must not have been too solid, because he just slumped. Then on the second shot he seemed to fall back.”
Brehm seemed to think the shots came from in front of or beside the President. He explained the President did not slump forward as he would have after being shot from the rear. The book depository building stands in the rear of the President’s location at the time of the shooting.
(Dallas Times Herald, 22 November 1963, p.1)
Ochus Campbell
Ochus Campbell, the vice–president of the Texas School Book Depository Company, was standing with Roy Truly on the north side of Elm Street, about 30 feet from the front entrance to the TSBD.

Campbell says he ran toward a grassy knoll to the west of the building, where he thought the sniper had hidden.
(Dallas Morning News, 23 November 1963)
Mr. CAMPBELL advised he had viewed the Presidential Motorcade and subsequently heard the shots being fired from a point which he thought was near the railroad tracks located over the viaduct on Elm Street.
(Warren Commission Document 5, p.336, 26 November 1963)
I heard shots being fired from a point which I thought was near the railroad tracks located over the viaduct on Elm street. I … had no occasion to look back at the Texas School Book Depository building as I thought the shots had come from the west.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.638, 19 March 1964)
Faye Chism
Faye and John Chism were standing close to the Stemmons Freeway sign on the north side of Elm Street.

It came from what I thought was behind us.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.19, p.472, 22 November 1963)
John Chism
I looked behind me, to see whether it was a fireworks display or something. And then I saw a lot of people running for cover, behind the embankment there back up on the grass.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.19, p.471, 22 November 1963)
On hearing the second shot he definitely knew the first was not a firecracker and was of the opinion the shots came from behind him.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.24, p.525, 18 December 1963)
Harold Elkins
Elkins was standing close to the crossroads at Main Street and Houston Street.

I immediately ran to the area from which it sounded like the shots had been fired. This is an area between the railroads and the Texas School Book Depository which is east of the railroads.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.19, p.540, 26 November 1964)
Ronald Fischer
Fischer was standing on the southwest corner of the crossroads at Houston Street and Elm Street, just opposite the TSBD.

Mr Belin :Where did the shots appear to be coming from?Mr Fischer :They appeared to be coming from just west of the School Book Depository Building. There were some railroad tracks and there were some railroad cars back in there.Mr Belin :And they appeared to be coming from those railroad cars?Mr Fischer :Well, that area somewhere.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.6, p.195, 1 April 1964)
Buell Wesley Frazier
Frazier, who had driven Oswald to work that morning, was standing on the front steps of the TSBD.

Mr Ball :Now, then, did you have any impression at that time as to the direction from which the sound came?Mr Frazier :Well to be frank with you I thought it come from down there, you know, where that underpass is. There is a series, quite a few number of them railroad tracks running together and from where I was standing it sounded like it was coming from down the railroad tracks there.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.2, p.234, 11 March 1964)
Dorothy Garner
Garner was watching the motorcade from a fourth–floor window of the TSBD.

I thought at the time the shots or reports came from a point to the west of the building.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.648, 20 March 1964)
Jean Hill
Jean Hill was standing on the south side of Elm Street, just a few yards from President Kennedy as he was shot in the head.

Mrs. Hill stated she heard from four to six shots in all and believes they came from a spot just west of the Texas School Book Depository Building.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.25, p.854, 13 March 1964)
Mrs Hill :I didn’t realize that the shots were coming from the building. I frankly thought they were coming from the knoll.Mr Specter :Why did you think they were coming from the knoll?Mrs Hill :That was just my idea where they were coming from.Mr Specter :Would you draw the knoll on the picture, where you mean by the knoll?Mrs Hill :This area in front of the Book Depository — it’s right here.Mr Specter :Just draw me a circle as to where you had a general impression the shots were coming from.Mrs Hill :This is a hill and it was like they were coming from right in there. …Mr Specter :Now, did you have a conscious impression of the source of the first shot that you heard, that is, where it came from?Mrs Hill :Well, evidently I didn’t because the only conscious recollection I have of that … I had always thought that they came from the knoll. … As I said, I thought they were coming from the general direction of that knoll.…Mr Specter :You just had the general impression that shots were coming from the knoll?Mrs Hill :Yes.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.6, pp.212f, 24 March 1964)
S. M. Holland
Sam Holland was standing on the railway bridge known as the triple underpass, at the west end of Dealey Plaza.

When they got just about to the Arcade I heard what I thought for the moment was a fire cracker and he slumped over and I looked over toward the arcade and trees and saw a puff of smoke come from the trees and I heard three more shots after the first shot but that was the only puff of smoke I saw. … But the puff of smoke I saw definitely came from behind the arcade through the trees.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.19, p.480, 22 November 1963)
HOLLAND stated that he looked toward the fence to his left to observe anyone that he might see running from this fence but saw no one.
The only unusual thing that HOLLAND could recall was an approximate one and one–half to two foot diameter of what he believed was gray smoke which appeared to him to be coming from the trees which would have been on the right of the Presidential car but observed no one there or in the vicinity.
(Warren Commission Document 5, p.49, 24 November 1963)
Mr Holland :I counted four shots and about the same time all this was happening, and in this group of trees — [indicating].Mr Stern :Now, you are indicating trees on the north side of Elm Street?Mr Holland :These trees right along here [indicating].Mr Stern :Let’s mark this Exhibit C and draw a circle around the trees you are referring to.Mr Holland :Right in there. [Indicating.] … And a puff of smoke came out about 6 or 8 feet above the ground right out from under those trees. And at just about this location from where I was standing you could see that puff of smoke, like someone had thrown a fire–cracker or something out, and that is just about the way it sounded. … There were definitely four reports.Mr Stern :You have no doubt about that?Mr Holland :I have no doubt about it. I have no doubt about seeing that puff of smoke come out from under those trees either.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.6, pp.243f, 8 April 1964)
Ed Johnson
Ed Johnson, a reporter for the Fort Worth Star–Telegram, was in the press bus, a few car–lengths back in the motorcade, and described his experiences in the next day’s paper:

The shots snapped out in the brisk, clear noon air.
Some reporter said, “My God, what’s that? It must be shots.”
The caravan kept wheeling on, picking up speed.
Some of the White House reporters yelled for the bus driver to stop. He kept on going, heading toward the Stemmons Expressway.
Some of us saw little puffs of white smoke that seemed to hit the grassy area in the esplanade that divides Dallas’ main downtown streets.
(Fort Worth Star–Telegram, 23 November 1963, p.2)
Dolores Kounas
Kounas was standing on the south side of Elm Street, opposite the TSBD.

It sounded as though these shots were coming from the Triple Underpass. … She stated it did not sound like the shots were coming from that [TSBD] direction but rather from the Triple Underpass.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.846, 24 November 1963)
Although I was across the street from the Depository building and was looking in the direction of the building as the motorcade passed and following the shots, I did not look up at the building as I had thought the shots came from a westerly direction in the vicinity of the viaduct.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.659, 23 March 1964)
Paul Landis
Paul Landis was a Secret Service agent in the car immediately behind President Kennedy’s car.

My reaction at this time was that the [fatal] shot came from somewhere towards the front.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.18, p.759, 17 November 1963)
Billy Lovelady
Lovelady was standing on the front steps of the TSBD. A famous photograph by James Altgens showed a man who resembled Lee Oswald in the doorway during the assassination; it is now generally agreed that the man was in fact Lovelady, not Oswald. For details, see Was Oswald on the TSBD Front Steps?

I heard several loud reports which I first thought to be firecrackers and which appeared to me to be in the direction of Elm Street viaduct just ahead of the Motorcade. I did not at any time believe the shots had come from the Texas School Book Depository.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.662, 19 March 1964)
Mr Ball :Where was the direction of the sound?Mr Lovelady :Right there around that concrete little deal on that knoll.Mr Ball :That’s where it sounded to you?Mr Lovelady :Yes, sir; to my right. …Mr Ball :From the underpass area?Mr Lovelady :Between the underpass and the building right on that knoll.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.6, p.338, 7 April 1964)
Austin Miller
Miller was standing with other railway employees on the Triple Underpass.

I saw something which I thought was smoke or steam coming from a group of trees north of Elm off the Railroad tracks.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.19, p.485, 22 November 1963)
Mr Belin :Where did the shots sound like they came from?Mr Miller :Well, the way it sounded like, it came from the, I would say from right there in the car. Would be to my left, the way I was looking at him over toward that incline.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.6, p.225, 8 April 1964)
A.J. Millican
I was standing on the North side of Elm Street, about half way between Houston and the Underpass. … I heard three shots come from up toward Houston and Elm right by the Book Depository Building, and then immediately I heard two more shots come from the Arcade between the Book Store and the Underpass, and then three more shots came from the same direction only sounded further back.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.19, p.486, no date, but filed with a group of similar statements given on 22 November 1963)
Luke Mooney
Mooney, a deputy sheriff, was standing on Main Street, on the edge of Dealey Plaza. He was one of the officers who found the rifle hidden under boxes on the sixth floor.

Mr Ball :Why did you go over to the railroad yard?Mr Mooney :Well, that was — from the echo of the shots, we thought they came from that direction.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.3, p.283, 25 March 1964)
Thomas Murphy
Murphy was standing on the Triple Underpass.

MURPHY said in his opinion these shots came from a spot just west of the Texas School Book Depository Building.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.835, 17 March 1964)
Jean Newman
Jean Newman was standing on the north side of Elm Street, between the TSBD and the knoll.

The first impression I had was that the shots came from my right.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.19, p.489, 22 November 1963)
She stated that when she realized the reports were shots she immediately turned and looked up the hill to the North toward the parking lot but did not see anything.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.843, 24 November 1963)
William Newman
William Newman (no relation to Jean Newman) was also standing on the north side of Elm Street, a little further along toward the knoll.

I thought the shot had come from the garden directly behind me, that was on an elevation from where I was as I was right on the curb. I do not recall looking toward the Texas School Book Depository. I looked back in the vacinity [sic] of the garden.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.19, p.490, 22 November 1963)
Kenneth O’Donnell and David Powers
Two members of the White House staff, Kenneth O’Donnell and David Powers, were travelling in the Secret Service car immediately behind President Kennedy’s car. O’Donnell testified that the shots came from the rear (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.7, p.448). Powers agreed, but added that “I also had a fleeting impression that the noise appeared to come from the front in the area of the triple overpass” (ibid., p.473).

The politician, Tip O’Neill, claimed in his memoirs that both men had in fact heard shots from the grassy knoll:

I was never one of those people who had doubts or suspicions about the Warren Commission’s report on the president’s death. But five years after Jack died, I was having dinner with Kenny O’Donnell and a few other people at Jimmy’s Harborside Restaurant in Boston, and we got to talking about the assassination.
I was surprised to hear O’Donnell say that he was sure he had heard two shots that came from behind the fence.
“That’s not what you told the Warren Commission,” I said.
“You’re right, ” he replied. “I told the FBI what I had heard, but they said it couldn’t have happened that way and that I must have been imagining things. So I testified the way they wanted me to. I just didn’t want to stir up any more pain and trouble for the family.”
“I can’t believe it,” I said. ”I wouldn’t have done that in a million years. I would have told them the truth.”
“Tip, you have to understand. The family — everybody wanted this thing behind them.”
Dave Powers was with us at dinner that night, and his recollection of the shots was the same as O’Donnell’s. Kenny O’Donnell is no longer alive, but during the writing of this book I checked with Dave Powers. As they say in the news business, he stands by his story.
(Thomas P. O’Neill, Jr., Man of the House: The Life and Political Memoirs of Speaker Tip O’Neill, Random House, 1987, p.178)
Roberta Parker
Parker was standing directly opposite the main entrance to the TSBD.

The shot sounded to her as though it had come from a cement memorial building to the north of the Texas School Book Depository on Elm Street. She looked in that direction but saw nothing that she could relate to the shot. During this time, she heard two additional shots and in looking around, glanced at the Texas School Book Depository building which was directly across Elm from her.
(Warren Commission Document 205, p.504, 16 December 1963)
Frank Reilly
Reilly was standing with other railway workers on the railway bridge at the west end of Dealey Plaza.

He saw two cars turn on Elm toward the underpass and at this time heard three shots which he thought came from the trees west of the Texas School Book Depository.
(Warren Commission Document 205, p.29, 18 December 1963)
Mr Ball :What did you hear?Mr Reilly :Three shots.Mr Ball :Where did they seem to come from; what direction?Mr Reilly :It seemed to me like they come out of the trees.Mr Ball :What trees?Mr Reilly :On the north side of Elm Street at the corner up there.Mr Ball :On the north side of Elm — on what corner?Mr Reilly :Well, where all those trees are — you’ve never been down there?Mr Ball :Yes: I’ve been there, but you tell me — I want you to tell me because it has to go on the record here and it has to be in writing.Mr Reilly :Well, it’s at that park where all the shrubs is up there — it’s to the north of Elm Street — up the slope.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.6, p.230, 8 April 1964)
Arnold Rowland
Arnold Rowland was standing on the east side of Houston Street, facing the TSBD.

Mr Specter : Did you have any impression or reaction as to the point of origin when you heard the first noise?Mr Rowland :Well, I began looking, I didn’t look at the building mainly, and as practically any of the police officers there will tell you, the echo effect was such that it sounded like it came from the railroad yards. That is where I looked, that is where all the policemen, everyone, converged on the railroads.…Mr Specter :Now, as to the second shot, did you have any impression as to the point of origin or source?Mr Rowland :The same point or very close to it.Mr Specter :And how about the third shot?Mr Rowland :Very close to the same position.…Mr Specter :After the shots occurred, did you ever look back at the Texas School Book Depository Building?Mr Rowland :No; I did not. In fact, I went over toward the scene of the railroad yards myself.Mr Specter :Why did you not look back at the Texas School Book Depository Building in view of the fact that you had seen a man with a rifle up there earlier in the day?Mr Rowland :I don’t remember. It was mostly due to the confusion, and then the fact that it sounded like it came from this area “C”, and that all the officers, enforcement officers, were converging on that area, and I just didn’t pay any attention to it at that time.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.2, pp.180f, 10 March 1964)
Edgar Smith
Edgar Smith, a police officer, was standing on Houston Street, near the junction with Elm Street.

Mr Smith :I thought when it came to my mind that there were shots, and I was pretty sure there were when I saw his car because they were leaving in such a hurry, I thought they were coming from this area here, and I ran over there and back of it and, of course, there wasn’t anything there.Mr Liebeler :You thought the shot came from this little concrete structure up behind No. 7?Mr Smith :Yes, sir.Mr Liebeler :On Commission Exhibit 354?Mr Smith :Yes.Mr Liebeler :Toward the railroad tracks there?Mr Smith :That’s true.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.7, p.568, 24 July 1964)
Joe Marshall Smith
Like his fellow police officer, Edgar Smith, Joe Marshall Smith (no relation) was at the corner of Elm Street and Houston Street.

[T]he reporter calling stated he had interviewed Patrolman J. M. Smith who advised that he definitely distinguished the aroma of gunpowder near the underpass. … He stated he did smell what he thought was gunpowder but stated this smell was in the parking lot by the TSBD Building and not by the underpass. He advised he never at any time went to the underpass and could not advise if there was the smell of gunpowder in the underpass.
(Warren Commission Document 205, p.39, 9 December 1963)
I heard the shots and thought they were coming from bushes of the overpass.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.600, 16 July 1964)
Mr Liebeler : Did you have any basis for believing where the shots came from, or where to look for somebody, other than what the lady told you?Mr Smith :No, sir; except that maybe it was a power of suggestion. But it sounded to me like they may have came from this vicinity here.Mr Liebeler : Down around the — let’s put a No. 5 there [on Commission Exhibit 354] at the corner here behind this concrete structure where the bushes were down toward the railroad tracks from the Texas School Book Depository Building.Mr Smith :Yes.Mr Liebeler :Now you say that you had the idea that the shots may have come from up in that area?Mr Smith :Yes, sir; that is just what, well, like I say, the sound of it.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.7, pp.535f, 23 July 1964)
Forrest Sorrels
Forrest Sorrels, a Secret Service agent, was in the car immediately following the presidential car.

I looked towards the top of the terrace to my right as the sound of the shots seemed to come from that direction.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.21, p.548, 28 November 1963)
James Tague
James Tague, the third man wounded in Dealey Plaza, was standing close to the point where Commerce Street meets Main Street, by the triple underpass.

Mr Liebeler : Did you have any idea where these shots came from when you heard them ringing out?Mr Tague :Yes; I thought they were coming from my left.Mr Liebeler :Immediately to your left, or toward the back? Of course, now we have other evidence that would indicate that the shots did come from the Texas School Book Depository, but see if we can disregard that and determine just what you heard when the shots were fired in the first place.Mr Tague :To recall everything is almost impossible. Just an impression is all I recall, is the fact that my first impression was that up by the, whatever you call the monument, or whatever it was —…Mr Liebeler :Your impression of where the shots came from was much the result of the activity near No. 7 [on Commission Exhibit 354]?Mr Tague :Not when I heard the shots.Mr Liebeler :You thought they had come from the area between Nos. 7 and 5?Mr Tague :I believe they came from up in here.Mr Liebeler :Back in the area “C”?Mr Tague :Right.Mr Liebeler :Behind the concrete monument here between Nos. 7 and 5, toward the general area of “C”?Mr Tague :Yes.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.7, pp.556f, 23 March 1964)
Roy Truly
Roy Truly, a director and the superintendant of the Texas School Book Depository, was standing with Ochus Campbell on the north side of Elm Street, close to the TSBD. Shortly afterwards, he encountered Lee Oswald in the canteen on the second floor of the TSBD.

Mr Belin :Where did you think the shots came from?Mr Truly :I thought the shots came from the vicinity of the railroad or the WPA project [the concrete structure], behind the WPA project west of the building.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.3, p.227, 24 March 1964)
Harry Weatherford
Weatherford, a deputy sheriff, was standing outside the Criminal Court building on Main Street.

I heard a loud report which I thought was a railroad torpedo, as it sounded as if it came from the railroad yard. Thinking, this was a heck of a time for one to go off, then I heard a 2nd report which had more of an echo report and thought to myself, that this was a rifle and I started towards the corner when I heard the 3rd report. By this time I was running towards the railroad yards where the sound seemed to come from.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.19, p.502, 23 November 1963)
Seymour Weitzman
Weitzman was one of the police officers who discovered the rifle on the sixth floor of the TSBD. At the time of the shooting, he was on the corner of Main Street and Houston Street.

I ran in a northwest direction and scaled a fence towards where we thought the shots came from.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.24, p.228, 23 November 1963)
Otis Williams
Williams was standing on the front steps of the TSBD.

Just after the Presidential car passed the building and went out of sight over the Elm Street embankment I heard three loud blasts. I thought these blasts or shots came from the direction of the viaduct which crosses Elm Street.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.683, 19 March 1964)
Mary Woodward
Mary Woodward, a journalist on the Dallas Morning News, was standing on the north side of Elm Street, about halfway between the TSBD and the grassy knoll. She wrote about her experience in the following day’s paper.

Suddenly there was a horrible, ear–shattering noise coming from behind us and a little to the right.
(‘Witness From the News Describes Assassination’, Dallas Morning News, 23 November 1963, p.3)
United States Attorney H. BAREFOOT SANDERS, Dallas, Texas, telephonically advised ASAC KYLE G. CLARK on December 5, 1963, that a reporter for the Dallas “Morning News”, name unrecalled, had advised him that four of the women working in the Society Section of the Dallas “Morning News” were reportedly standing next to Mr. ZAPRUDA [sic] when the assassination shots were fired. According to this reporter, these women, names unknown, stated that the shots according to their opinion came from a direction other than from the Texas School Book Depository (TSBD) Building.
(Warren Commission Document 205, p.39, 5 December 1963)
She stated that her first reaction was that the shots had been fired from above her head and from possibly behind her. Her next reaction was that the shots might have come from the overpass which was to her right. She stated, however, because of the loud echo, she could not say where the shots had come from, other that they had come from above her head.
(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.24, p.520, 6 December 1963)
Abraham Zapruder
Abraham Zapruder famously filmed the assassination from the top of a concrete pedestal on Elm Street close to the grassy knoll.

According to Mr. Zapruder, the position of the assassin was behind Mr. Zapruder.
(Warren Commission Document 87, page unknown, 22 November 1963)
Mr Zapruder :I remember the police were running behind me. There were police running right behind me. Of course, they didn’t realize yet, I guess, where the shot came from — that it came from that height.Mr Liebeler :As you were standing on this abutment facing Elm street, you say the police ran over behind the concrete structure behind you and down the railroad track behind that, is that right?Mr Zapruder :After the shots?Mr Liebeler :Yes.Mr Zapruder :Yes — after the shots — yes, some of them were motorcycle cops – I guess they left their motorcycles running and they were running right behind me, of course, in the line of the shooting. I guess they thought it came from right behind me.Mr Liebeler : Did you have any impression as to the direction from which these shots came?Mr Zapruder :No, I also thought it came from back of me. Of course, you can’t tell when something is in line — it could come from anywhere, but being I was here and he was hit on this line and he was hit right in the head — I saw it right around here, so it looked like it came from here and it could come from there.Mr Liebeler :All right, as you stood here on the abutment and looked down into Elm Street, you saw the President hit on the right side of the head and you thought perhaps the shots had come from behind you?Mr Zapruder :Well, yes.(Warren Commission Hearings, vol.7, pp.571f, 22 July 1964)

Other Witnesses
A few witnesses made statements more ambiguous than those quoted above, that could be interpreted as supporting shots from the grassy knoll:

1.Eugene Boone (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.19, p.508)
2.E.V. Brown (Warren Commission Document 205, pp.39f)
3.James Crawford (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.6, p.173)
4.Avery Davis (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.642)
5.Emmett Hudson (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.19, p.481; cf. Warren Commission Document 5, p.30)
6.Clemon Johnson (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.836)
7.Joe Molina (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.6, p.371)
8.Samuel Paternostro (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.24, p.536)
9.Nolan Potter (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.834)
10.Jesse Price (Warren Commission Document 5, p.65)
11.Madie Reese (Warren Commission Document 5, p.59)
12.William Shelley (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.6, p.329)
13.James Simmons (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.833)
14.Garland Slack (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.26, p.364)
15.Steven Wilson (Warren Commission Hearings, vol.22, p.685)

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